Bodies were buried with grave goods, and offerings of food and drink were made to the dead to ensure that they would not trouble the living. his "Einleitung in das Alte Testament" (Leipzig, 1787), I, p. 45). The Romans transcribed "phoenix" to "poenus", thus calling the descendants of the Canaanite settlers in Carthage "Punic". Thus while "Phoenician" and "Canaanite" refer to the same culture, archaeologists and historians commonly refer to the Bronze Age, pre-1200 BCE Levantines as Canaanites; and their Iron Age descendants, particularly those living on the coast, as Phoenicians. Finkelstein, Israel, and Silberman, Neil Asher, 2001, Asherah: goddesses in Ugarit, Israel and the Old Testament, By Tilde Binger. Posts about Proto-Canaanite written by vallance22. aspect of Israel’s religious expression gives some unity to the essays to follow. Proto-Canaanite is the name given to (a) the Proto-Sinaitic script when found in Canaan. Carried west by Phoenician sailors, Canaanite religious influences can be seen in Greek mythology, particularly in the tripartite division between the Olympians Zeus, Poseidon and Hades, mirroring the division between Baal, Yam and Mot, and in the story of the Labours of Hercules, mirroring the stories of the Tyrian Melqart, who was often equated with Heracles.. The Phoenician, Hebrew, and other Canaanite dialects were largely indistinguishable before that time. Philo of Byblos states that Atlas was one of the Elohim, which would clearly fit into the story of El Shaddai as "God of the Mountain(s)". More recently, the term Canaanite has been used for the secondary Iron Age states of the interior (including the Philistines and the states of Israel and Judah) that were not ruled by Arameans—a separate and closely related ethnic group. Proto-Canaanite, also referred to as Proto-Canaan, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is the name given to the proto-Sinaitic script (c. 16th century BC), when found in Canaan. From the other direction, Jean Bottéro has suggested that Ya of Ebla (a possible precursor of Yam) was equated with the Mesopotamian god Ea during the Akkadian Empire. Horon, an underworld god, co-ruler of the underworld, twin brother of Melqart, a son of Mot. 1200 - 516 B.C.E - Digging deeper into the spiritual side of the geographical area which gave birth to Judaism and how polytheism turned into monotheism. As the myths of ancient Ugarit indicate, the religion of the Canaanite peoples was a crude and debased form of ritual polytheism. Anat goes to the Underworld, attacks Mot with a knife, grinds him up into pieces, and scatters him far and wide. For example, during the Hyksos period, when chariot-mounted maryannu ruled in Egypt, at their capital city of Avaris, Baal became associated with the Egyptian god Set, and was considered identical – particularly with Set in his form as Sutekh. In his "Gesc… For the origins of the modern-day religion of Judaism, see Origins of Rabbinic Judaism.. Page 35. abstract, K. L. Noll (2007) "Canaanite Religion", Olmo Lete, Gregorio del (1999), "Canaanite religion: According to the liturgical texts of Ugarit" (CDL), Hillers D.R. ... art and perhaps even religion. Even so, the deity being worshiped, usually Yahweh, was understood to be physically present in the temple, have a body, and be a personal god with emotions and willpower. Furth… , Canaanite religious practice had a high regard for the duty of children to care for their parents, with sons being held responsible for burying them, and arranging for the maintenance of their tombs. "Linguists, too, will be interested in these texts. 600 BCE to ca. In the tenth-century b.c.e. This article discusses the historical roots of Judaism throughout the 1st millennium BCE. Canaanite religion, beliefs and practices prevalent in ancient Palestine and Syria during the 2nd and 1st millennia bc, centring primarily on the deities El, Baal, and Anath (qq.v.). It was proposed at first to refer to the languages related to Hebrew by Ludwig Schlözer, in Eichhorn's"Repertorium", vol. Phoenician script two types occur: and . Canaanite religion was the group of belief systems utilized by the people living in the ancient Levant throughout the Bronze Age and Iron Age. 200 BCE, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/islamic-state/11620441/Islamic-State-fighters-seize-the-world-heritage-site-of-Palmyra-in-pictures.html, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/01/satellite-images-reveal-isis-destruction-of-palmyras-temple-of-bel, "The Shelby White & Leon Levy Program: Dig Sites, Levant Sothern", "Life, Death, and Afterlife in Ancient Israel and Canaan", "Canaanites Imported Sacrificial Animals From Egypt, Archaeologists Find", "A view from Copenhagen: Israel and the History of Palestine", "The Cuneiform Texts of Ras Shamra~Ugarit", Bibliography of Canaanite & Phoenician Studies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Canaanite_religion&oldid=991032802, Articles needing additional references from February 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Athirat, "walker of the sea", Mother Goddess, wife of El (also known as Elat and after the Bronze Age as, Astoreth or Athtart, better known by her Greek name. With no one to give rain, there is a terrible drought in Ba'al's absence. Gorelick, Leonard; Williams-Forte, Elizabeth; "alleged but not securely attested", according to Johnston, Sarah Isles. Israel’s religion emerged from a mythopoeic past under the impact of certain historical experiences which stimulated the creation of an epic cycle and its associated covenant rites of the early time. Mot enters through the window and swallows Ba'al, sending him to the Underworld. , Archaeological investigations at the site of Tell es-Safi have found the remains of donkeys, as well as some sheep and goats in Early Bronze Age layers, dating to 4,900 years ago which were imported from Egypt in order to be sacrificed. GIMMELGIMMEL (Heb. An abjad of twenty-plus acrophonic glyphs, found in Levantine texts of the Late Bronze Age (from ca. Harriet Lutzky has presented evidence that Shaddai was an attribute of a Semitic goddess, linking the epithet with Hebrew šad "breast" as "the one of the Breast". "Skies"), god of the heavens, paired with Eretz, the land or earth. A great number of deities in a four-tier hierarchy headed by El and Asherah were worshiped by the followers of the Canaanite religion; this is a detailed listing:, Canaanites believed that following physical death, the npš (usually translated as "soul") departed from the body to the land of Mot (Death). The Canaanite scribes who produced the Baal texts were also trained to write in Babylonian cuneiform, including Sumerian and Akkadian texts of every genre. In the Baal Cycle, Ba'al Hadad is challenged by and defeats Yam, using two magical weapons (called "Driver" and "Chaser") made for him by Kothar-wa-Khasis. Papyrus seems to have been the preferred writing medium, but whereas in Egypt papyrus may survive centuries in the extremely dry climate, Canaanite records have simply decayed in the humid Mediterranean climate. El approves, and the palace is built by Kothar-wa-Khasis. They show that Proto-Canaanite, the common ancestor of Phoenician, Moabite, Ammonite and Hebrew, existed already in the third millennium B.C.E as a language distinct from Aramaic, Ugaritic and the other Semitic languages. Phoenician alphabet letter on plate necklace keychain,Proto-Canaanite alphabet,Hebrew letter,Egyptian hieroglyphs jewelry,Sinaitic script DanubeJewelry. Tallay, the goddess of winter, snow, cold and dew, one of the three daughters of Ba'al Hadad.  There are a number of possible etymologies for the word. The early, Proto-Canaanite form of this letter h… Hebrews, Hebrews Term that is found chiefly in the Biblical traditions concerning the 2d millennium b.c., and then, apparently after centuries of desuetude, r… Hebrew Language, Major official language of the State of Israel. (1985)"Analyzing the Abominable: Our Understanding of Canaanite Religion" (The Jewish quarterly review, 1985), The Encyclopedia of Religion - Mcmillan Library Ref. From time to time it subverted the essential monotheism of the Israelites after they occupied Canaan, the Promised Land of the Old Testament. Although child sacrifice was known to surrounding peoples, there is no reference to it in ancient Phoenician or Classical texts. ג; גִּמֶּל), third letter of the Hebrew alphabet; its numerical value is therefore 3. The sources for Canaanite religion come either from literary sources written by the early Hebrews, or from archaeological discoveries. The idea of two mountains being associated here as the breasts of the Earth, fits into the Canaanite mythology quite well. This marriage of the divinity with the city would seem to have Biblical parallels too with the stories of the link between Melqart and Tyre; Chemosh and Moab; Tanit and Baal Hammon in Carthage, Yah and Jerusalem. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Canaanite religion was polytheistic, and in some cases monolatristic. Just uploaded to academia.edu: The Gezer Agricultural Calendar Almanac in Paleo-Hebrew (ca. According to the pantheon, known in Ugarit as 'ilhm (Elohim) or the children of El, supposedly obtained by Philo of Byblos from Sanchuniathon of Berythus (Beirut) the creator was known as Elion, who was the father of the divinities, and in the Greek sources he was married to Beruth (Beirut = the city). 925 BCE) and its Translation into Mycenaean Linear B, Coupled with the Profound Implications of the Powerful Impact of Supersyllabograms aka Surcharged Adjuncts on Linear B The Hurrian goddess Hebat was worshiped in Jerusalem, and Baal was closely considered equivalent to the Hurrian storm god Teshub and the Hittite storm god, Tarhunt. The term Semite means a member of any of various ancient and modern Semitic-speaking peoples originating in southwestern Asia, including Akkadians, Canaanites, Phoenicians, Hebrews, Arabs, and Ethiopian Semites. In the later Proto-Canaanite and in the early Phoenician scripts the letter was represented by three fingers meeting at a common base . Until the excavation of Ras Shamra in Northern Syria (the site historically known as Ugarit), and the discovery of its Bronze Age archive of clay tablet alphabetic cuneiform texts, little was known of Canaanite religion, as papyrus seems to have been the preferred writing medium, and unlike Egypt, in the humid Mediterranean climate, these have simply decayed. The ideas of pairs of mountains seem to be quite common in Canaanite mythology (similar to Horeb and Sinai in the Bible). The religion of the Proto-Indo-Europeans is not directly attested, but reconstruction has been attempted based on the existence of similarities among the deities, religious practices and mythologies of the Indo-European peoples. This record was supplemented by a few secondary and tertiary Greek sources: (Lucian's De Dea Syria (The Syrian Goddess), fragments of the Phoenician History of Philo of Byblos (died 141 CE), and the writings of Damascius). One of the sacrificial animals, a complete donkey, was found beneath the foundations of a building, leading to speculation this was a 'foundation deposit' placed before the building of a residential house. Proto-Canaanite is the name given to (a) the Proto-Sinaitic script when found in Canaan. The aleph-bet-gimmel semitic writing system known as proto-Canaanite that would eventually develop into Hebrew and Aramaic emerged in 1800 BCE and can be seen in early examples from Egypt and Sinai. When the Greeks later traded with the Canaanites, this meaning of the word seems to have predominated as they called the Canaanites the Phoenikes or "Phoenicians", which may derive from the Greek word "Phoenix" meaning crimson or purple, and again described the cloth for which the Greeks also traded. (c) a hypothetical ancestor of the Phoenician script, with an undefined affinity to Proto-Sinaitic. MS in Canaanite West Semitic on bronze, Canaan, Israel/Lebanon, 11th c. 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