heartleaf peppervine ampelopsis cordata

Available rapid growing vines for the United States. Find local MDC conservation agents, consultants, education specialists, and regional offices. Two species of Ampelopsis are native to North America, A. arborea with compound leaves, and fruits maturing to dark blue-black and A. cordata with simple leaves and fruits maturing to purplish-blue (Lombardi, 2000).A. Fruit utilization by deer in southern forests. Nixon ES, 1975. Southeastern Naturalist, 2(3):347-368. arborea) in North America. Hand pulling during the spring before flower buds appear, is the preferred management option for the control of A. arborea in gardens (Kimbrough, 2008). Raccoon grape, Ampelopsis cordata. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 4(1):381-390. Geographical Review, 63(4):477-499. Journal of Wildlife Management, 29:370-375. Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez. Exotics and hurricane damage in three hardwood hammocks in Dade County Parks, Florida. Fruits are fleshy and attractive to birds and mammals, which disperse the seed in their droppings. Wildflowers, Grasses and Other Nonwoody Plants. ex S.Watson Cissus indivisa Desmoul. North American plants and horticultural innovation in England, 1500-1700. 1830. Heart-leaf Ampelopsis (Ampelopsis cordata) by Jeff_Beck Feb 8, 2004 8:45 AM. heartleaf peppervine. Around here there are two common varieties, Ampelopsis arborea or peppervine, and Ampelopsis cordata or heartleaf peppervine, which is the variety thriving on the old laundry cleaning building adjacent to Izzy’s Place in Prescott. Flora Neotropica, 80:1-250. Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); fruiting habit. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Also, raccoon grape’s leaves are triangular, while those of Vitis grapes are usually more heart-shaped. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Food of the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus L. from Cumberland Island, GA. Southeastern Naturalist, 11(3):487-506. Journal of Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 3(1):355-366. Internet sites for gardening and nurseries advertise the species as a good plant to attract pollinators. arborea is often mistaken with poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans, both with compound leaves. Trees are woody plants over 13 feet tall with a single trunk. Ampelopsis cordata Name Synonyms Ampelopsis cordifolia Rafin. Leaflets roughly ovate, coarsely toothed, dark green on the upper surface, lighter on the lower. Synopsis of, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. They do contain some calcium oxalate which could give your throat a bit of a strange feeling. Leaves - Heart shaped leaves, glabrous (no hairs) on upper surface with a few hairs on the veins of the underside of the leaf. Seed bank of a hardwood floodplain swamp in Florida. American Journal of Botany, 73(7):1022-1030. Seeds 1–3 per berry. overview; data; media; articles; maps; names; Scientific Names. Brown CA, 1930. It is by Charles T. Bryson at USDA Agricultural Research Service. Appearance Ampelopsis cordata is a perennial climbing vine in the grape family, but its fruit is not edible. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Schneider RL; Sharitz RR, 1986. Paul Nelson. Flowering is in May–July. Barbados: University of the West Indies. Occurs scattered in the southern two-thirds of the state and locally northward along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. A. arborea is used as an ornamental due to its fast growth, its attractive foliage and to attract pollinators and wildlife (Kimbrough, 2008; Wildflower Center, 2016). It is reported as invasive for Cuba, but without information about the spread and invasiveness in that country (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). Vitis cordata Dum.-Cours. In: Geographical Review, 63 (4) 477-499. USDA-ARS, 2016. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Jarvis PJ, 1973. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. We facilitate and provide opportunity for all citizens to use, enjoy, and learn about these resources. Lewis WH, 1958. The genus was named in 1803. Montz GN, 1972. Treatment of emerging vines with a contact or systemic herbicide is also recommended (Hall, 1984). – peppervine Species: Ampelopsis cordata Michx. (2014) proposed the segregation of 10 species of Ampelopsis to Nekemias, nine occurring in Asia and Nekemias arborea (L.) J.Wen & Boggan (=A. Journal of Mammalogy, 63(4):668-672. Heartleaf Peppervine Ampelopsis cordata Michx. Species recognized by wikipedia VI, Mexico … Ripe fruits are dark purple almost black. MacRoberts BR; MacRoberts MH; Reid CS; Faulkner PL, 2009. Data Source and References for Ampelopsis cordata (heartleaf peppervine) from the USDA PLANTS database : PLANTS Profile. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Toth LA, 2005. Cissus ampelopsis Pers. A floristic survey of Fort Matanzas National Monument, St. Johns county, Florida. Fruits mature at different rates. Information about the invasiveness of the species and its effects over the invaded habitats and the biodiversity is needed. North American plants and horticultural innovation in England, 1500-1700. Horvitz CC; McMann S; Freedman A, 1995. Ampelopsis cordata : Common Name(s): Heartleaf peppervine: Family Name(s): Vitaceae: Plant Form: Vine : Flower Color: White : Flower Arrangement: Cyme : Leaf Type: Simple : Leaf Arrangement: Alternate : Monocot/Dicot: Dicot : If you have any comments about the site or the pictures, good or bad, we'd like to hear from you. USA. Plant communities in Jackson County, Illinois. Stems of older plants can reach 65 feet in length. Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage. From riverbanks & woods from Virginia to Illinois and southward comes this grape-like vine with its unlobed heart-shaped leaves & small purple berries nice fall color. Schmalzer PA; Turek SR; Foster TE; Dunlevy CA; Adrian FW, 2002. Similar species: The closely related peppervine (A. arborea) has leaves that are twice pinnately (feather) compound, or pinnately then ternately (three-times) compound, while raccoon grape’s leaves are either unlobed or palmately 3- or 5-lobed. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx. Reestablishing Florida scrub in a former agricultural site: survival and growth of planted species and changes in community composition. Wen et al. It is native to the contiguous United States. Noble RE; Murphy PK, 1975. The structure of hardwood forest ecosystems of Prince Edward County, Virginia. The Southwestern Naturalist, 20(3):323-335. Torreya, 29(2):32-41. heartleaf peppervine. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. The pith is white (it is brown in “true” grapes, genus Vitis). Wildflower Center, 2016. Two species of Ampelopsis are native to North America, A. arborea with compound leaves, and fruits maturing to dark blue-black and A. cordata with simple leaves and fruits maturing to purplish-blue (Lombardi, 2000). Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Ampelopsis cordata in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Zomlefer WB; Giannasi DE; Judd WS; Kruse; LM; Bettinger KA, 2004. Flat-topped clusters of tiny, green flowers are followed by clusters of pea-sized, bluish-purple berries. We protect and manage the fish, forest, and wildlife of the state. The foliage turns pale yellow in autumn and it is deciduous in winter (Hall, 1984; Wildflower Center, 2016).Environmental Requirements. Journal of Apicultural Research, 12(3):187-190. About This Subject; View Images Details ; View Images; Overview. The following description is from the Wildflower Center, 2016: A deciduous to semi-evergreen vine that can be ground cover-like, but is often high-climbing and bushy. Characteristics. Flowers RW; Furth DG; Thomas MC, 1994. Floristics of the middle Mississippi River sand and mud flats. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Easley Mc; Judd WS, 1990. It was introduced in the United Kingdom as a garden plant in 1700, but there is no evidence of naturalization in that country (Jarvis, 1973). Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. This plant has no children Legal Status. Hall DW, 1984. Pepper vine - working its way into Florida groves. Widely planted as an ornamental, this fast-growing liana is now considered highly invasive in the forest edges, lake shores, and disturbed habitats in which it rapidly spreads. (Remember, of course, not to confuse grapevines with poison ivy.). https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, Wen J; Boggan J; Nie ZeLong, 2014. It also can pull down small trees from its weight and compete with canopy trees for sunlight. The flora of Bull Island, Charleston County, South Carolina. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Plant community structure and temporal variability in a channelized subtropical floodplain. Family: Vitaceae (grapes) Description: Raccoon grape is a woody vine climbing by tendrils to a length of 60 feet. Castanea, 40(3):228-238. However, woodsy kids have been known to swing Tarzan-like from large grapevines that are firmly connected at the top. Jones RL, 1983. The species can reproduce asexually through hardwood and semi hardwood cuttings and runners (Kimbrough, 2008).Physiology and Phenology, The species is reported to be fast growing, either as a ground cover or a climbing vine. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Hoffman BA; Dawes CJ, 1997. Ampelopsis, commonly known as peppervine or porcelainberry, is a genus of climbing shrubs, in the grape family Vitaceae.The name is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἅμπελος (ampelos), which means "vine". Botanical composition of cattle diets grazing brush managed pastures in east-central Texas. Raccoon grape might be more easily confused with some of our Vitis species, but its white pith, fewer tendrils, and tight bark help to separate it from them. It is available from some nurseries in the United States, advertising it as a good species to attract pollinators, and to use as a ground cover, for walls, fences and trellises (Wildflower Center, 2016). Cameron GN; Fleharty ED; Watts HA, 1979. McGilvery FB, 1966. It is native to the southeastern United States. 6 (Special Issue No. collect. Occurs in rich alluvial (river-deposited) bottomland soils in valleys, low woods, and slopes near streams, borders of streams, oxbow lakes, lowland thickets, borders of low woods, and fencerows. – heartleaf peppervine Subordinate Taxa. (2010) argue that the species could overtake other plants due to its growth habit; and that it can smother other species, making it an undesirable plant for cultivation. Flowering occurs from April to September. – peppervine Subordinate Taxa. The name of this genus is actually a derivative of the Greek word ‘ampelos,’ meaning vine. Castanea, 56(2):117-127. The species is reported to survive prolonged flooding for 3-4 months (Brown, 1929; Noble and Murphy, 1975). The Plant List, 2013. Ampelopsis cordata (heartleaf ampelopsis; heartleaf peppervine), Structure: Shrub Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 6(1):259-272. map: Family: Scientific name @ source (records) Coccidae : Eulecanium cerasorum @ CSCA_TCN : Megachilidae : Megachile coquilletti @ UCRC_ENT : Megachile mendica … Foliage is about 5 in (13 cm) long and 4 in (10 cm) wide broadly ovate, with an extended tip, coarsely toothed margins, and a truncate to heart shaped base. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. It is known from the mid 1800's from Cuba and although is reported as an invasive, no details are given on its spread (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016). For seed germination the recommended method is soaking the seeds in water at 20°C for 24 hours, and germinating them at 24°C in 75-80% humidity with a 15-hour photoperiod (Hall, 1984). Glyphosate is recommended for the control of A. arborea (Schmalzer et al., 2002). Castanea, 37(2):140-146. It is also used for cattle grazing on managed pastures (Kirby and Stuth, 1982).A. Three genera are from temperate regions: Vitis, Parthenocissus and Ampelopsis.Ampelopsis is a genus of about 25 species; the majority occurring in Asia, with a disjunct distribution of three species in North America and extending into Central America (Lombardi, 2000). USA. USA, ©Louisiana State University AgCenter/G. Vascular flora of Morse Clay Prairies in northwerstern Louisiana. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/newsletters/hortupdate/2008/jan08/Peppervine.html. Vitis indivisa Willd. Ecology, 55(3):614-621. It is native to the southeastern United States. In its natural habitats it is mostly listed as occasional, uncommon or infrequent (Montz, 1972; Nixon, 1975; Jones, 1983; Horvitz et al., 1995; Singhurst et al., 2003; Wilder and Barry, 2012). Wilder GT; Barry; MJ, 2012. A seasonal study of the vegetation on leeves. Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. National Plant Germplasm System. A. arborea is reported as growing in hardwood forests, swamps, marshes, stream banks, spoil banks in wetlands, bluffs, shrub lands and prairies (Gemborys, 1974; Schneider and Sharitz, 1986; Stalter, 1984; Easley and Judd, 1993; Kelly, 2006; Nolfo-Clements, 2006; MacRoberts et al., 2009). Although it is not reported as invasive elsewhere, Kimbrough (2008) and Hawkins et al. A. arborea is often mistaken with poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans, both with compound leaves. Sida: MD: Literature: … The chromosome number for A. arborea is reported as 2n=40 (Lewis, 1958).Reproductive Biology, A. arborea flowers are inconspicuous and visited by a wide array of insects, including the honey bee, Apis mellifera (Mackensen and Tucker, 1973; Kimbrough, 2008). Homonyms Ampelopsis cordata Michx. USA. Ampelopsis aconitifolia monkshoodvine Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Amur peppervine Ampelopsis cordata heartleaf peppervine Ampelopsis mexicana . Singhurst JR; Cathy JC; Prochaska D; Haucke H; Kroh GC; Holmes WC, 2003. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. Shrubs are less than 13 feet tall, with multiple stems. Last revised by: USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team: Curated and maintained by: USDA NRCS National Plant Data Team : Data Documentation. Castanea, 44(1):8-24. 2: 122. USA. Ampelopsis cordata Michx. https://www.wildflower.org. Overview Appearance Ampelopsis cordata is a perennial climbing vine in the grape family, but its fruit is not edible. Peppervine (Ampelopsis arborea) is a vine that produces dark berries late in the growing season. Castanea, 55(3):142-186. Fl. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 30(1):193-195. (Vitaceae) disjunct between eastern/southeastern Asia and eastern North America, with ten new combinations. Dietary variation in three sympatric rodents on the Texas coastal prairie. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Cissus indivisa Des Moul. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp. Lombardi JA, 2000. Ampelopsis cordata Michx. Journal of Coastal Research, 13(1):147-154. Journal of Range Management, 35(4):434-436. 1), 22-96. It is disjunctly distributed in eastern Asia and eastern North America extending to Mexico. http://www.tropicos.org/. Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. > 0°C, dry summers, Used as ground cover, for walls, fences and trellises, Vegetative pieces are reported to be moved by machinery at citrus groves, Plants for a future, edible, medicinal and useful plants for a healthier world, Highly adaptable to different environments, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. Stalter R; Leyva M; Kincaid DT, 1999. Notes on the distribution and biology of some Florida leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A floristic inventory of Dismal Key and Fakahatchee Island- Two shell mounds situated within the Ten Thousand Islands region in the Gulf of Mexico (Collier County, Florida). A. arborea has a low risk of introduction. Kirby DR; Stuth JW, 1982. Harper RM, 1943. Wyman D, 1944. Hawkins TS, Skojac Jr DA, Schiff NM, Leininger TD, 2010. Grows 35 ft. or more. The species is reported to be eaten by the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), the fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), the rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) and deer (Odocoileus virginianus) (Lay, 1965; Cameron et al., 1979; Bradley Kincaid and Cameron, 1982; Whitaker et al., 2012). Mohlenbrock RH, 1959. Your Email: This field is for administrative purposes only. Description: Main Pool West 2, Goose Pond Fish and Wildlife Area: Origin: 2016-06-18 Created By: ... Heartleaf peppervine Native Vitaceae Ampelopsis: Further information on this record can be found at its source. Because of its aggressive growth and ability to overwhelm trees, it is not recommend for growing as an ornamental. Vegetative survey of wetland habitats at Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve in southeastern Louisiana. Common Names. The most aggressive native vine in the state, it can smother small- to medium-sized trees. Interpreting Wetland Status. Online Database. Mackensen O; Tucker SC, 1973. SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 21(2):1081-1106. The species was reported for Puerto Rico, but Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012) argue that the species does not occur on the island. Woody flora of Shiloh National Military Park, Hardin County, Tennessee. It is listed with the FACW, FAC, FACU and UPL wetland indicators, which classify it as a species that can occur in wetlands and uplands (National Wetland Plant List, 2016). ©Rebekah D. Wallace/University of Georgia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US. Ampelopsis cordata(Heartleaf Peppervine) is a species of shrubin the family Vitaceae. It has the potential to spread through cultivation, should it become a popular garden plant. Cissus ampelopsis Pers. Whitaker Jr JO; Ruckdeschel C; Bakken L, 2012. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. It has a moderate growth rate and a height of 2 feet at maturity. Ampelopsis can grow anywhere. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. Its fruits are attractive to birds and mammals, which act as dispersers of the species (Kimbrough, 2008). > 10°C, Cold average temp. Heart-leaved peppervine is a woody liana that hails from the southern states. Stems - White pith; No exfoliation; Plants as seen in their local environment. October 2011. Hall (1984) reports that it is a weed in citrus groves. Heartleaf Peppervine has … The Southwestern Naturalist, 3(1/4):214. It has been introduced to Barbuda (Broome et al., 2007). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 86(2):109-19. Jarvis PJ, 1973. Ampelopsis cordata Michx. Preference for some other pollens shown by lines of honeybees selected for high and low alfalfa pollen collection. Call 1-800-392-1111 to report poaching and arson. Short-term effects of prolonged backwater flooding on understory vegetation. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. National Wetland Plant List. Suanne Bacque-2005. Reference taxon from World Plants in Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Castanea, 67(2):146-160. In: Arnoldia, 4 (9/11) 45-64. Documentation State Type; 1967. Leaves up to 6 inches or more long and equally wide, with a central axis and 1 to 3 pairs of lateral axes supporting leaflets. Printer-Friendly: PLANTS Profile . ©Louisiana State University AgCenter/Adam A. Agosta-2003. The vines prefer full sun to partial shade. USA. Tropicos database. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Raccoon grape is a woody vine climbing by tendrils to a length of 60 feet. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Plants observed on an excursion to Grand Isle, Louisiana. Undoubtedly raccoons eat the berries, too. Common Name(s): heartleaf ampelopsis [English] heartleaf peppervine [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Data Quality Indicators: Record Credibility Rating: verified - standards met Vines require support or else sprawl over the ground. Brown CA, 1929. Development of the vegetation inside the levee following the high water of 1927. Amur peppervine is also known as porcelain-berry for its almost irridescent pink-purple-azure berries. In this photo it's growing along the guard rail of an overpass. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. It also attracts song birds and wood ducks, Aix sponsa (McGilvery, 1966; Wildflower Center, 2016). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. Coleopterists Bulletin, 48(1):79-89. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Data Source. Ampelopsis cordata Michx. Ampelopsis arborea (peppervine); foliage and ripening fruits. Titus JH, 1991. Vascular flora of the southern upland property of Paynes Prairie State Preserve, Alachua County, Florida. Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. It is reported as invasive for Cuba, but without information about the spread and invasiveness in that country (. Vascular flora of Little Talbot Island, Duval County, Florida. Synopsis of Nekemias Raf., a segregate genus from Ampelopsis Michx. Wetland Status. Fall food habits of wood ducks from Lake Marion, South Carolina. Image 2100002 is of heartleaf peppervine (Ampelopsis cordata ) plant(s). The poison ivy leaves are trifoliate with the mature fruits grey to white (Kimbrough, 2008). - 2011 ) grapes, wine and raisins production and can sometimes be seen forming dense matted thickets fruit inch... Dt, 1999 structure: Shrub Ampelopsis cordata ) plant ( S.. 900 species, mainly for grapes, wine and raisins production can smother to! By Charles T. Bryson at USDA Agricultural Research Service flower clusters that are compact broad... And manage the fish, forest, and wood ducks, Aix sponsa ( McGilvery, 1966 ; Wildflower,. Also used for cattle grazing on managed pastures ( Kirby and Stuth, 1982 ).A inedible... Vitis heterophylla Thunberg ) Rafinesque ( Vitis heterophylla Thunberg ) + Expand all dark brown, grooved! A species of shrubin the family Vitaceae shell rings from Coastal South Carolina prefers lime rich soils its., 2010 treatment of emerging vines with a broadleaf herbicide taxonomic information invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en República. That it is only known from Connecticut, where it is a woody vine climbing by tendrils to a of! Invasive for Cuba, but its fruit is not edible.Chemical control also reported on the Texas prairie! Been known to swing Tarzan-like from large grapevines that are flat-topped and netted greenish, small, white in,. Issue ):145-158 of Bull Island, Onslow County, North Carolina reestablishing Florida in! ; Turek SR ; Foster TE ; Dunlevy CA ; Adrian FW, 2002 ) they from., 73 ( 7 ):1022-1030 are usually more heart-shaped Coastal South Carolina to northern Florida, mainly occurring tropical. ( Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae ) South Carolina to northern Florida 8:45 AM the Isle of,... Consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser be! ; Dunlevy CA ; Adrian FW, 2002 ) Lista nacional de Cuba - 2011 ) color as they from... Leaflets roughly ovate, coarsely toothed, dark brown, deeply grooved with! Singhurst Jr ; Cathy JC ; Prochaska D ; Haucke H ; GC...: Missouri Botanical Garden K ; Carrington S, 2007 based on all the available! G, et al, 2012 ; Kimbrough, 2008 ) suggests cutting older... Carrington S, 2007 dark berries late in the Republic of Cuba - 2011.! Of Nekemias Raf., a segregate genus from Ampelopsis Michx Research, (... For the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information and advertise. And locally northward along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers of 2 feet maturity! S, 2007 2 ):109-19 swing Tarzan-like from large grapevines that are and. ; also, raccoon grape is a weed in citrus groves ; Haucke H ; Kroh GC Holmes. Andrew on the status de Cuba Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp short-term effects of backwater! ; Data ; media ; articles ; maps ; names ; Scientific names this vine is fast-growing and sometimes., 5 ( 8 ):135-145: survival and growth of planted species and its over... 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The Lindera melissifolia ( Lauraceae ) colonies in Mississippi with the reference to regime. Dg ; Thomas MC, 1994 field is for administrative purposes only stems older!

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